Controlling the Message: New Media in American Political Campaigns, Farrar-Myers and Vaughn (eds), Indiana University Press, 316 pp., ISBN: 9781479867592

Reviewed by Hadi Mehrpouya, Edinburgh College of Art.

The last three decades witnessed a major change and strong momentum towards digitization and the use of digital technologies. This momentum got a new force through some recent ‘developments’ in both manufacturing costs and subsequently consumer price of smartphones and electronic devices along with ‘free’ access and availability of social media tools and wider access and use of the Internet.


The Snowden Reader, David P. Fidler (ed.), Indiana University Press, 349 pp., illlustrated ed., ISBN: 9780253017376

Reviewed by Hadi Mehrpouya, Edinburgh College of Art.

The leaks of National Security Agency (NSA) by Edward Snowden, a private contractor of the agency, is still one of the biggest of its kind in human history both in terms of the amount of information that has been leaked and in terms of its affects in both northern and southern politics, nationally and internationally.